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September 29, 2010
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X-rays are extremely important diagnostic tools integral to treatment planning. Practitioners commonly have trouble with films coming out of the processor too light, too dark, or with an otherwise poor appearance.
This months issue of Tech Tips discusses many of the common problems with x-ray films and the solutions to resolve them.
Step 1: Try another x-ray machine. If you still get light films, the problem is probably in the darkroom, skip to step 4. If films are good from the other machine, proceed to Step 2.
Step 2: Check the settings on the control. Most of the later model machines have only a timer setting. Turn the timer up several steps and try again. If you have an older model with mA, KVP, and timer controls, make sure that these are where they ought to be. Higher KVP settings will result in darker radiographs, mA affects density. Do not just start turning knobs. Always go up with just one control at a time.
Step 3: Make sure that you are holding the exposure button down until it cuts off. X-ray machines are required to have “dead man’s switches” so that the emission of radiation stops when the button is released. Occasionally an operator will be in a hurry and release the button early. If this happens, you will get a light film.
Step 4: Several things in the darkroom will cause a light film. Cold solutions in the processor or dip tank, weak or depleted solutions, and film being processed too rapidly. Ideal temperature for solutions is 80°-82° F. The solution should be changed at least monthly, more often for busy practices. A chart displaying date of change is a must. Even better, put a calendar next to the processor to record all maintenance complete with check boxes to verify it has been performed.
Most automatic film processors have some sort of solution heater (usually a pad that goes under the tanks or some sort of bar/probe that goes into them). If the solutions are cool, the solution heater is usually the cause. You will need a multi-meter to check for power or appropriate resistance of the heater. Specifications will vary depending on the make and model of processor. (Some developers also have a separate temperature sensor – see below under “films too dark” for more info on these). Consult your owner’s manual or call American Dental Accessories, Inc. and our tech support staff can assist you with a determination.
Step 5: Check the speed. 4.5 minutes is prescribed. If running too short– the speed can often be calibrated. Consult your owner’s manual or call American Dental Accessories, Inc. tech support line and we can assist you with calibration. Worn or dirty transports may not move freely and could slow down processing as well.
Step 6: Contaminated chemistry. Many times contaminated chemistry causes poor quality film. Thoroughly clean all tanks and racks/rollers and change the chemistry. Rinse everything with distilled water.
Evidence of contaminated chemistry:
• Dark developer solution.
• Black deposits in the bottom of the developer solution pan/tub.
If these problems exist the processor must be cleaned thoroughly, rinsed with distilled water, and the chemicals replenished.
Note: Depleted chemistry can also cause light films. Replenish your chemistry with 6–8 oz. solutions daily. During the day you may top off the solutions with distilled water (1-2 oz. only– more will dilute the chemistry).
If your processor has a separate sensor, you can use a multimeter to check it. Specifications will vary depending on the make and model of processor. Consult your owner’s manual or call American Dental Accessories, Inc. tech support line and we can assist you with a determination.
The Air Techniques AT2000 processors have the temperature sensor built in to the solution heater so you will need to replace the heater if the sensor is bad.
For roller-type processors, make certain the rollers are clean. One of the most common causes of marks on film is dirty transports.
Step 2: The x-ray producer is not emitting. Try another machine. If you still get a clear film, suspect the film, or go back to Step 1, above.
Note: “A friend in need….” If you still cannot get to the root of the problem, and help is not available, try this: Using your x-ray and your film, take a picture. Go to a nearby dentist’s office, (if pan film, you must be extra careful to protect it from light). Process the film with his/her processor. If you can, take a film at his/her office and bring it back, and process it in your processor. This should really tell you where your problem lies.
NOTE: The machine that is taking the x-rays does not cause dark films. Dark films are only caused by the chemistry being too warm or light leaks. The slightest crack in the safelight filter will cause dark pan or ceph films (disregard periapical films, pan & ceph films are 200 times more sensitive to light). A very slight leak under or around the door (or into a daylight loader) will cause dark films. To test for light leaks, lay a fresh film out on the counter, place a coin on the film, wait a minute or two and then develop the film. If you can see the image of the coin, you have light leaks. If using a daylight loader, try using the processor in the dark. If this corrects the problem, your daylight loader leaks. To check for light leaks around a darkroom door, stand in the middle of the darkroom and turn all the lights off. Close your eyes for 60 seconds. Open your eyes and look for the source of light.
Also, make certain you have a safelight with a GBX filter. Many times one may be tempted to use a red bulb but this is not a true safelight and could expose your films. Using a dedicated safelight with a low wattage bulb and separate GBX filter is essential to film quality.
Last of all is the film itself. Make certain that your film is safely stored and is not expired. Always make certain to rotate your stock so that the oldest film is used first. When re-stocking film (and supplies in general), always put the newest supply behind the older stock on your shelf.
There are additional checks and possibilities for panoramic films as well. These are detailed in our equipment repair and maintenance guide Doctor, Did You Check the Breaker Too? available from American Dental Accessories, Inc. in hard copy or on interactive CD.
American Dental Accessories, Inc.
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My film is turning out very purple! Help!! I just put new developer fluid in.
film is turning out purple!!
Your chemistry has likely become contaminated. Dump out both the fixer and developer tanks, rinse them THOROUGHLY with distilled water and refill with fresh chemistry. If the problem persists, please contact us by sending an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org and we can help you trouble shoot further. Be sure to include your full contact information as well as the make and model of processor you have.
Our films are coming out of the developer with a patter on them. It looks like a "gauze" print. They also have a funny texture to them now. I have just recently changed the solution in the processor and cleaned it out. I noticed that the rollers in the developer are starting to darken even after washing and have imprints of film on them. Could this be the cause? or is there another problem?
Thanks for posting the question!
What type of processor do you have? The gauze-like marks are most commonly encountered on the Velopex processor as it transports the films on a mesh screen. If dirty, it can leave marks like this.
The condition of your rollers and marks on the film are consistent with a transport that needs additional cleaning. When was the last time you performed a thorough cleaning using a dedicated cleaning solution? It sounds like your rack is due for a good soaking in the manufacturers recommended solution or a solution you have found effective. For more specific recommendations, we'll need to know the make and model of processor you are using.
One last question - are these intraoral films, pans, or both?
Oh, and in case you missed it, you also might want to check out Tech Tips #31.
When an x-ray is coming out too light or too dark a lot of times this is as simple as not enough or too much radiation exposure when taking the x-ray. Another factor is distance of tubehead cone to patient head. A tubehead placed closer to a patient will need far less exposure than a tubehead placed close to a patient.
Utilizing a ring and bar holder system will take out the guess work of proper tubehead placement when taking an x-ray.
Remember, x-rays need to penetrate tissue in order to create a diagnostic image whether your medium is film or digital sensors.
When an image comes out too light it would make sense to increase exposure settings because an image being too light in contrast means that radiation is not penetrating the tissue enough thus decreasing the amount of diagnostic data.
Increasing radiation will create a clearer, crisper image with more diagnostic data.
I find that a good guage, when using a ring and bar system, is that your x-ray image should barely show the bite block from the holder and any empty space should be very dark or black.
Thanks for the insight, Jake.
There is a lot of technique involved with good radiographs as well, and some of the various cone paralleling systems can help a lot. Naturally, the x-ray generator will have an effect on the image and staff training in proper use and settings is a crucial part of this valuable diagnostic tool.